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Article submitted: January 24, 2014; Peer review completed: March 29, 2014; Revised version received: April 22, 2014; Accepted: May 4, 2014; Published: May 12, 2014. A large variation is found in the properties of natural fibers (Joshi et al. Over the centuries, improvements in synthetic materials, surgical techniques, and sterilization methods have permitted the use of biomaterials in many ways. Key Factors for the Selection of Materials for Biomedical Applications. Leaves were used to weave patterns into baskets and used for edge trimming on mats. “Recent development of flax fibres and their reinforced composites based on different polymeric matrices,” Materials 6(11), 5171-5198. doi:10.3390/ma6115171. Biocomposites can be fabricated by combining biofibres such as oil palm, kenaf, industrial hemp, flax, jute, henequen, pineapple leaf fibre, sisal, wood, and various grasses with polymer matrices from either non-renewable (petroleum based) or renewable resources (Jawaid and Khalil 2011). Many plants have oil-rich seeds and these oils can be extracted when they have a variety of uses. The main problem of those composites is the coordination of the degradation behavior of both phases and, especially, of the interphase between fibre and matrix. Since fiber-reinforced polymers, i.e. Soapweed, Yucca glauca, also had historical significance to indigenous people as a medicinal and fiber source. Fibers derived from plant materials are used to make a wide array of products: Wide array of products made from native plant fibers. 3. Teoh, S. (2000). After rinsing away the softened pulp, the remaining fiber filaments were twisted together into threads. 2003). Published Patents for Biomedical Applications of Natural Fibre. Moreover, the properties are also affected by the place where the fibers are grown, cultivation conditions, the part of the plant they are harvested from, the growing period, and any retting or extracting processes (Ticoalu 2010). The knots were tied when the bark was wet, and once dry, the knots shrank making the joint tighter. Biocomposites can be employed in bioengineering or biomedical applications (Cheung et al. ), leaf fibers (banana, sisal, manila hemp, agave, abaca, pineapple, etc. Standard Handbook of Biomedical Engineering and Design (pp. “Polymeric scaffolds in tissue engineering application: A review,” International Journal of Polymer Science 2011(ii), 1-19. doi:10.1155/2011/290602. In this regard, there is ongoing research to address these issues. ), seed fibers (coir, cotton, and kapok), fruit fibres (oil palm, coir), stalk (wheat, rice, rye, etc. Yuccas have very specialized pollination systems that require the yucca moth for seed production. This review paper addresses the utilization of plant fibres and its composites in biomedical applications and considers potential future research directed at environment-friendly biodegradable composites for biomedical applications. 2001). Leaves were dried and made into braids and used as vanilla scented incense. Polymer composites are those materials that can be developed by combination of either natural fibers/synthetic resin or natural fibers/bio-resin (Chandramohan and Marimuthu 2011). Birch bark is used to make beautiful boxes. Ambrose, C. G., and Clanton, T. O. Banana yucca (Yucca baccata) is preferred over other yuccas because of the strength of its fibers. They come from the outer portion of the stem of fibrous plants such as flax, hemp, and jute, or from the leaves of plants such as cattail, agave, and yucca. 2011). 2. van Dam, T.A. Chandramohan, D., and Marimuthu, K. (2011). (2008). In orthopedic surgery, this mismatch of stiffness between the bone and the metallic or ceramic implants influences the load at the implant/tissue interface. Corbie, T. (2001). “The future prospects of microbial cellulose in biomedical applications,” Biomacromolecules 8(1), 1-12. doi:10.1021/bm060620d, Daunton, C., and Kothari, S. (2012). Plant fibres, such as flax or hemp, can be used as a reinforcement for PVC, PE or PP-type polymers in place of synthetic fibres (glass, Kevlar, carbon, etc.). For example, cotton fibres (which are natural fibres that are derived from the cotton plant) used in the production of cotton fabrics that are characterized by their relatively low weight and their soft texture. The anisotropy of the elastic properties of the biological tissues has to be considered in the design criterion for implants made from composite biomaterials. 1400 Independence Ave., SW The properties of natural fibres vary not only between species but also depend strongly on the cultivation, isolation, and processing methods (Zhu et al. Photo by Cheryl Beyer. 2004; Ticoalu 2010; Kalia et al.2009). (2013). Retrieved from http://www.pessoal.utfpr.edu. People also used this important grass for sewing, basket weaving, and stuffing for pillows and mattresses. The Low Country of South Carolina is renowned for its coiled sweetgrass baskets. Banana yucca (Yucca baccata) plants growing in the foothills of the Sandia Mountains on the Cibola National Forest. The property (tensile strength) of natural fiber composites has been found to vary depending on the type of fibers (Table 3), and the type of resin and manufacturing process. “Natural antibacterial material and its use,” China Patent CN1461827. “Sustainable bio-composites from renewable resources: Opportunities and challenges in the green materials world,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment 10(1-2), 18-26. Many studies have been carried out to determine the impact of fibre type and processing methods on the tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break of natural fibre composites (Mueller and Krobjilowski 2004; Mukhopadhyay and Fangueiro 2009; Bledzki and Jaszkiewicz 2010). Flax leaves are woven into garments by the Maori peoples of New Zealand. Ideally, these biomaterials must be nontoxic, non-carcinogenic, chemically inert, stable, and mechanically strong enough to withstand the repeated forces of a lifetime. “Biological materials: Structure and mechanical properties,” Progress in Materials Science 53(1), 1-206. doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2007.05.002, Milanese, A. C., Cioffi, M. O. H., and Voorwald, H. J. C. (2011). Furthermore, biocomposites offer opportunities for environmental gains, reduced energy consumption, insulation, and sound absorption properties. Teas were prepared from the plant materials for sore throat and coughs. Materials can irritate a different host response in the bulk form than in the fibrous or particulate form. It is better to use renewable sources. “A review on natural fibre-based composites – Part I.,” Natural Fibre 1(2), 37-68. “Cellulose-based bio- and nanocomposites: A review,” International Journal of Polymer Science. Biocomposites are already utilized in biomedical applications such as drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, orthopedics, and cosmetic orthodontics. Fibers can be spun into filaments, thread, or rope; be chemically modified to create a composite material (e.g., rayon or cellophane); or matted into sheets as with paper. Compared to synthetic fibres, natural fibres are often available at low cost and cause less health and environmental hazard problems for people producing the composites as compared to glass fibre based composites (Jawaid and Abdul Khalil 2011). 2004). The same authors also reported development of nanocomposites from PALF nanofibres for a wide range of biomedical applications such as cardiovascular implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering, repair of articulate cartilage, vascular grafts, urethral catheters, mammary prostheses, penile prostheses, adhesion barriers, and artificial skin (Giri et al. The plant materials, like jute, contribute to the manufacturing of bags, ropes, and other materials. The matrix (the bioresin/synthetic resin) supports the fibrous material (natural fibres) and transfers the stress to the fiber to carry the load in natural fibre-reinforced polymer composites. “Manufacturing process of antibacterial bamboo pulp used for high-wet-modulus fibre,” China Patent CN102677504, Yang, H.-S., Wolcott, M. P., Kim, H.-S., Kim, S., and Kim, H.-J. Use plant based materials for fabrics, ropes etc. Furthermore, they are essentially composite materials with anisotropic properties that depend on the roles and structural arrangements of various components (e.g. 2009). collagen, elastin, and hydroxyapatite) of the tissues (Ramakrishna et al. They are dead at maturity and function as support tissue in plant stems and roots. Plant fibre is obtained by cutting vines in caves, cutting giant flowers from the Giant Flower Mini Biome, cutting thick growth in … “Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced PVC composites: A review,” Sains Malaysiana 38(4), 531-535. (2008). Plant-based fibers such as flax, jute, sisal, hemp, and kenaf have been frequently used in the manufacturing of biocomposites. Cotton Flax Coir Silk Cotton Hemp Jute 3. It is waterproof, tough, resinous and durable. Bio-binders vary with respect to their melt flow indices, impact properties, hardness, vapor transmission characteristics, coefficient of friction, and decomposition (Flory and Requesens 2013). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8908867, Jawaid, M., and Abdul Khalil, H. P. S. (2011). (2004). “Life cycle assessment of biofibres replacing glass fibres as reinforcement in plastics,” 33, 267-287. The sweetgrass baskets are coiled with bulrushes, pine needles, or palmetto fronds. 2013). 2001). 2000). However, not all carbohydrates are digestible. Table 6. Western royalty often had clothes made from a blend of hemp and linen, and Gutenberg used hemp to print his Bible. 2013). Many plant fibres are produced as field crops. 2009). Fig. Recently, ongoing work has explored the use of palm tree fibres for industrial and biomedical applications (Anon 2013). USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee. Wool … polymer composite materials, offer both low elastic modulus and high strength, they have been proposed for several orthopedic applications (Table 1). “Natural fibre-reinforced composites for bioengineering and environmental engineering applications,” Composites Part B: Engineering 40(7), 655-663. doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2009.04.014. (2009). The properties of polymer composites can be altered by the constituent components and filler which significantly different from those of the individual constituents (Ramakrishna et al. “Polyester cool-fibre antibacterial pillow,” China Patent CN102715804, Meyers, M. A., Chen, P.-Y., Lin, A. Y.-M., and Seki, Y. 2013). Camel hair fibers belong to the class of specialty hair fibers with unique characteristics … 2008). Selection of Biomaterials for Biomedical Applications. Wood from this important species Western red cedar is found from Alaska to northern California, and from the Pacific Ocean to Montana. Asokan, P., Firdoous, M., and Sonal, W. (2012a). 2001; With Permission). by varying molecular weight, the share of their enantiomers L and D-lactide, or copolymerising it with PGA (polyglycolic acid) polymer, and (2) and, if crystallization of the PLA-polymer is prevented, their degradation products are nontoxic, biocompatible, and easily metabolized (Hutmacher et al. Leaf fibers have been used to make brushes, cords, and ropes. Also, additional tests are required to ensure that their specific composition, arrangement, and interaction are biocompatible too. (2011) have reviewed the processing methods, properties, and biomedical applications of nanocellulose and cellulosic composites. In some Native American tribes, bear grass plants were burned every year to allow for harvest of newly emerging leaves from the charred bases. Photo by Nancy Cotner. The tough leaf fibers could also be braided into ropes. 1996. Based on their sustainability, plant fibers such as hemp, jute, sisal, kenaf, banana, and ramie fibers are replacing synthetic fibers in increasing numbers of fiber-reinforced composites. Traditionally, natural fibers have been cultivated and used comprehensively for non-structural applications and have also been used for applications in housing as roof material and wall insulation. North Dakota tree handbook. Aggerholm, S., Bodewadt, T., and Lysgaard, T. (2013). Natural fibres have been used by people throughout historical times, but in recent years natural fibres application in polymer composites has increased due to their availability as renewable materials and increased concerns about the environment (Majeed et al. Biodegradable and bio-based products based on annually renewable agricultural and biomass feedstock can form the basis for a portfolio of sustainable, eco-efficient products that can compete and capture markets currently dominated by products based exclusively on petroleum feedstock (Mohanty et al. Sustainability Using resources in a way that minimize. Plant fibres include seed hairs, such as cotton; stem (or bast) fibres, such as flax and hemp;leaf fibres, such as sisal; and husk fibres, such as coconut. 2009). 3 that different kinds of reinforcements, i.e. Photo by Teresa Prendusi. Bamboo processing can involve leaves, stem and the soft inner pith to synthesise textiles suitable for many uses. US Forest Service, FM-RM-VE In general, natural fibres have comparable mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility to human tissues, such that often there is no adverse effect on host tissue, which is required for any materials to be used in biomedical applications (Cheung et al. Bledzki, A., and Jaszkiewicz, A. Plants also provide us with fibres for making cloth, rope, paper etc. Fiber cells are dead at maturity and function as support tissue in plant stems and roots. Gorshkova, in Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences, 2003. 2001). Cellulose produces long, … Plant-based fibers such as flax, jute, sisal, hemp, and kenaf have been frequently used in the manufacturing of biocomposites. All rights reserved. Natural fibres are of interest to scientists due to advantageous traits such as low cost, high strength to weight ratio, low density per unit volume, non-corrosive property, and acceptable specific strength, in addition to their renewable and degradable characteristics (Joshi et al. Also, by controlling the percentage of the reinforcing and continuous phase, the properties and design of the implant can be tailored to suit the mechanical and physiological conditions of the host tissues. “Mechanical performance of biocomposites based on PLA and PHBV reinforced with natural fibres – A comparative study to PP,” Composites Science and Technology 70(12), 1-37. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), a common cultivated garden plant in our area, is an excellent source of fiber that holds promise for paper making. (2012). A schematic diagram shows the potential use of biocomposites in the repair, reconstruction, and replacement of human hard tissues (Fig. (2013). “Extraction of nanocellulose fibrils from lignocellulosic fibres: A novel approach,” Carbohydrate Polymers 86(4), 1468-1475. Fiber Plants. Bodros, E., Pillin, I., Montrelay, N., and Baley, C. (2007). Washington DC 20250-1103, Pollinator-Friendly Best Management Practices, Native Plant Material Accomplishment Reports, Fading Gold: The Decline of Aspen in the West, Wildflowers, Part of the Pagentry of Fall Colors, Tall Forb Community of the Intermountain West, Strategic Planning, Budget And Accountability, Recreation, Heritage And Volunteer Resources, Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air And Rare Plants, Building materials: roofing, caulking materials. 2001). 2013). Plants including cotton, jute, flax and hemp are used to obtain plant fibres. 30, 254-261. Wood fibres – can be used to make paper from trees Sisal fibres – are obtained from Agave Sisalana and these fibres are used in the construction of cars, furniture, plastics and even paper. Adv. Herman, D.E., et al. Consequently, such fibres have long been used for textiles and rope making. (2010). “Absorbable protective coatings for wound with the use of sponge and process for producing the same,” WIPO patent WO/2002/054998. Nowadays, the use of biocomposites in biomedical applications offers several advantageous characteristics such as being low cost, lightweight, environmentally friendly, bio-renewable, and more durable. Sci. (2011). Photo by Susan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. Natural fibres by themselves cannot be used to sustain the range of loads expected in many biomedical applications (Everitt et al. The bark has been used to make everything from mats and cords to canoes and cradles. bast fibre Bast fibre, soft, woody fibre obtained from stems of dicotyledonous plants (flowering plants with net-veined leaves) and used for textiles and cordage. Due to the need for more environmental friendly materials, natural fiber composites have been regaining increased attention. Benefits for patients are a faster bone healing, no risk of pathogen transfer compared to allograft, faster and cheaper surgery, and less pain compared to auto graft. “Natural fibres as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) composites,” Composites Science and Technology 63, 1317–1324. “Effects of natural fibre surface on composite properties: A review,” Proceedings of the 1st International Postgraduate Conference on Engineering, Designing and Developing the Built Environment for Sustainable Wellbeing, Retrieved from http://eprints.usq.edu.au/18822. An example of the use of biocomposites in clinical application is cages for spinal fusion. by Rachel Jones, University of Portsmouth. For some applications as in dental implants, biopolymers offer a better aesthetic characteristic. Natural fibres available in different forms (continuous, chopped, woven, and fabrics) determine ultimate physical and mechanical properties of final components. instead of non renewable sources. Researchers and entrepreneurs are interested in the utilization of environmentally friendly and sustainable biocomposite materials for biomedical and industrial applications. “Isolation of nanocellulose from pineapple leaf fibres by steam explosion,” Carbohydrate Polymers 81(3), 720-725. Another advantage of cotton fibre is that it can be … Only the thin outer bark is removed. There are many types of bio binders, of which the most common are shown in Fig. Different in vitro and in vivo tests are necessary to establish that the individual materials by themselves be biocompatible. 2820 Faucette Dr., Campus Box 8001Raleigh, NC 27695. Mechanical Properties of Different Natural Fibre Composites. A. Fibers from the thick bark of the western red cedar, Thuja plicata, have been most widely utilized. Also Eichhorn et al. “Medical balloon with incorporated fibres,” WIPO patent WO/2013/148399. com.au/documentSummary;dn=058025628512911;res=IELHEA, Dhandayuthapani, B., Yoshida, Y., Maekawa, T., and Kumar, D. S. (2011). Xue, Q., Xu, F., Yu, W., Liu , A., Pu, Y., and Zhang, L. (2012). Indian hemp was used to make bridle ropes, bowstrings, and threads for sewing buckskins. 2001). Flax, hemp, jute, and kenaf are characterized by a high proportion of long, flexible bast fibres that are readily separated and purified from the other materials in the plant. Recent advances in natural fibres based polymer composites have enhanced their application in biomedical applications and offer significant opportunities for improved materials from renewable resources with enhanced support for global sustainability. Plant fibres 1. (JP). Kapok (Ceiba pentandra), seed fiber of South American tree; fibers are hollow and waterproof, used for life preservers, parkas. Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are traditionally used to make paper, cloth, or rope. Casting materials (composite materials made of woven cotton fabrics) have been used to form splints, casts, and braces to fix bone fragments (Ramakrishna et al. It is possible to produce highly durable consumer products from natural fibres that can be easily recyclable (Corbie 2001). 2002). 3). This valuable fiber … 2009). 1. 30, 254-261. Botanically the fiber is considered to be an individual cell, which is part of sclerenchyma tissue and is characterized by a thick cell wall and a high length-to-diameter ratio (reaching 1000 and more). Indian and Chinese craftspeople have been utilizing glues, waxes, and tissues to repair or regenerate abnormal parts of the body as a traditional treatment of wounded or traumatized patients (Patel and Gohil 2012). Other researchers also reported that traditional plant-originated cellulose and cellulose-based materials (woven cotton gauze dressings) have been used in medical applications for many years and are mainly utilized to stop bleeding (Czaja et al. “Are natural fiber composites environmentally superior to glass fiber reinforced composites?” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 35(3), 371-376. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2003.09.016, Kabir, M., and Wang, H. (2011). “A review on biomaterials: Scope, applications & human anatomy significance,” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 2(4), 91-101. “Preparation and characterization of ramie-glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix hybrid composites. “Coir fibre reinforcement and application in polymer composites: A review,” J. “Characterisation of natural fibre reinforcements and composites,” Journal of Composites 2013, 1-4. doi:10.1155/2013/416501. Fibers are long cells with thick walls and tapering ends. “Could biopolymers reinforced by randomly scattered flax fibre be used in structural applications?” Composites Science and Technology 67(3-4), 462-470. The National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference defined a biomaterial as “any material or mixture of materials manufactured or natural in base which can be used for any interval of time, as a complete item or as a part of a system which treats, enhances or replaces any tissue, organ, or function of the body” (Patel and Gohil 2012). Sweet grass is another important member of the grass family used by Native Americans. Development of biocomposites by using natural fibres as an alternative to petroleum based materials would help to reduce dependence on imported oil, carbon dioxide emission, and help to generate more economical opportunities for the agricultural sector. There are almost 200 uses of western red cedar as a fiber! For Ex: cotton, wool ,Silk ,flax, jute. Researchers obtained cellulose nanofibers from flax bast fibers, hemp fibers, kraft pulp, and rutabaga and developed nanocomposites from cellulose nanofibres which can find application in the medical field such as blood bags, cardiac devices, and valves as reinforcing biomaterials (Bhatnagar 2005). Novel and innovative approaches in the in vitro and in vivo tissue compatibility of this biomaterial product must be developed to address these significant issues. In this respect, the use of low-modulus materials such as polymers appears interesting because low strength associated with a lower modulus usually impairs their potential use. Natural fibres can be obtained from plant fibres such as sisal, hemp, bamboo, coir, flax, kenaf, jute, ramie, oil palm, pineapple, banana, cotton, etc., as well as from animal sources, e.g. parviflora) are the source of the striking black designs in the center and rim of the basket. 1-17). Many materials can be used in biomedical applications and they may be grouped into (a) metals, (b) ceramics, (c) polymers, and (d) composites. “Fatigue of biomaterials: A review,” International Journal of Fatigue 22(10), 825-837. doi:10.1016/S0142-1123(00)00052-9, Ticoalu, A. (1991). 2013). Cottenceau, J. P., Nadul, G., Chevillon, G., and Roussigne, M. (1998). can affect the properties (Navarro et al. Table 3. (2013). The “sweetgrass” (Muhlenbergia filipes) grows along the southeastern coastal plain. Both synthetic and bio-resin can be either in the form of thermoset or thermoplastic type of resin. “Pretreatments of natural fibers and their application as reinforcing material in polymer composites—A review,” Polymer Engineering & Science 49(7), 1253-1272. doi:10.1002/pen, Kutz, M., Adrezin, R., and Barr, R. (2003). H., Ho, M. I., Tanabe, K., Skrifvars, M. I., Montrelay, M.... “ sweetgrass ” ( Muhlenbergia filipes uses of plant fibres grows along the southeastern coastal plain sweetgrass ” ( Muhlenbergia filipes ) along. 4 ) Jawaid, M., and Santulli, C. ( 2007 ) filipes ) grows along the coastal! Different cellulose fibres are most commonly used to make clothing including dresses and hats ( 1861 ), doi:10.1098/rsta.2007.0006... Materials having anisotropic properties 20 ( 4 ), 1137-1158. doi:10.1098/rsif.2008.0151 were prepared the... 1980S, producers were able to make brushes, cords, and stuffing for pillows and mattresses used for applications... Home and industry his Bible joint, ” Philosophical Transactions M. I. Tanabe. Stuffing for pillows and mattresses are attached and Shandilya, a for making cloth, rope paper! Burned to purify dancers in tribal ceremonies Country of South Carolina is renowned for its sweetgrass... The implantation devices available on the market ( table 5 ) of thermoset or thermoplastic type of.... 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