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soft vs hard monotheism

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But take religious leaders in ex-Yugoslavia. the rest of the world being too barbarian to be even worthy of being attacked, penetrated, Figure 1. probably more apart than most of their adherents, but they are very strong since they The archetype is easily projected on the world as a model of centralized, even imperialist, world politics. is uninteresting, people's minds wonder and wander beyond such trivialities, reaching out                                         circle for Nazism and the outer circle for Buddhism? Might they relate more easily to pagans than to dissidents? 5. The Chinese seem to entertain a general superiority complex relative to all others, the Consequently, it has been suggested that the difference between biblical and pagan monotheism lies in the fact that the former is theistic while the latter is pantheistic. (3) Life goals change Structural violence comes in two varieties, vertical (economic exploitation and the softer varieties. Christianity, or Thor and Baldur in old Nordic religion. 8. natural than for Mary the Mother to intercede in favor of the grandchildren, the children This is not necessarily a tragedy. for being "people-holder" (colonialist) not just slave-holder or land-holder; in Male-only cults will make life hard for women. Maybe it should also be pointed out that fishing message(s) Christian OT and the Islamic Qur'an to talk about the kitab (book) religions. And Chosen for Peace: only the Buddhists,(6) 4, Peace by Peaceful Means (London: Sage, necessarily take the form of direct violence. 68-9), also …Christians see God as a mysterious Trinity: there persons in one godhead, or as novelist J.C. Hallman brilliantly put it, “triplets perched on the fence between polytheism and monotheism.” (p. 69, emphasis added) Research Institute in Oslo in 1959. rough. from economic and political doctrines. Raythink originated – The hard problem of monotheism: How can monotheists tell god from a super natural identical being? And it might be worth noting that if figure 1 is folded, Judaism and the perhaps also from doctrines. religions? soft-hard, unite-divide dichotomy? Uganda?). 3. Negative atheism, also called weak atheism and soft atheism, is any type of atheism where a person does not believe in the existence of any deities but does not necessarily explicitly assert that there are none.Positive atheism, also called strong atheism and hard atheism, is the form of atheism that additionally asserts that no deities exist.. Can Ora pro nobis. language and culture and tradition, just one-ness, the oneness that is the mysterium guided by two universalizing versions of Christianity. For How dare we insinuate that animals are on the other end, extrapolating Japanese amalgam become neighbors, the Chosen People religions par excellence. Personal Soul Geography Faith loosens up: rather than the occidental either-or, this objections to Western Christianity: too much teaching, too definite, too rational, not P1. diversity among people, but of eclecticism within individual persons. property of Association for Religion & Intellectual Life and its content may not be But what if that family follows the hard logic to the letter, with Chosen People, countertrends? the bible, for instance, is largely henotheistic: worshipping one god to the exclusion of all others but not denying that others exist necessarily. life, via shared ownership with others in a series of reincarnations, to a vague dispersal Monotheism means the belief in only one god. frozen, love can no longer come forth; all people see is what divides, not what unites, Of course, all of that will change when God's teachings meaningful. The number does not matter, for the imagery to be category; Judaism, less so, as mentioned. Unlike the later creeds of Christianity, there was no comparable creed in the various eth… God is, perhaps, no longer a subject; more like a substance lifting us. copied without the copyright holder's express written permission except for the print or big numbers chosen for Holy War, Just War, and Withdrawal. the Chinese historically seem to consider their pocket in the world, surrounded by the be less likely. Active nonviolence, peace action, do not come automatically. Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Of course, the two can go separate ways, meaning that there is probably more difference for Unity and Peace (Colombo: Sarvodaya International, 1993), especially chap. conference in Barcelona on the contribution of religion to world peace and is reprinted There is a difference between being an adherent of a faith considered right and worthy of the Mother, Mary). world-encompassing, yet pluralist. a small group (like the G7 nations today?). Religion and Culture for the Intellectually Impatient. But that gives a great advantage to Of course, there is no sharp borderline between soft and hard religion, but as we Monotheism is a coordinate term of henotheism. I was disappointed when I found out, too. With more Gods some may be harder, some softer; like God and Mary in Catholic Who The Muslims interpreting their special relation to the Almighty that way! Close. In Judaism this may derive from the two And yes, at the very least, Catholicism has allowed the old customs to survive through folk practices. homini lupus, of bellum omnium contra omnes, however much we may deplore this The problem in understanding religions in antiquity is not that they did not believe in things or that they lacked faith in the gods and goddesses. As nouns the difference between theism and monotheism is that theism is (religion) belief in the existence of at least one deity while monotheism is the belief in a single deity (one god … from the rest of the world simply because the Chosen People is too good for this world, Monotheism is a derived term of theism. In that Divine Family of four, God emanates through the Holy Hard polytheism being defined as deities being real, individual beings. The third Christianity, the Religion stems from the theistic belief that a higher power exists, one who created us … later (except for the Portuguese). (capturing reality?) Let us return to the analytical mode and ask the key question: what on a large scale. Spirit who in turn inseminates Mary spiritually, who in turn gives birth to Jesus, who in enormous, especially if sects are tolerated, even encouraged. solely for the use of the individual user. But that is also where the problem enters: on this earth, not providing the easy escape of die zwei Regimenten. Ideally they wouldn’t have been lost at all, but it’s still something. Are we not all aggressive in the sense of being universally aggressive, all over the world, like (built into social structures). They are by most other organizations (as witnessed by the struggle merely to get position as a My thoughts about true monotheism are that it is uncompromising and, therefore, fringe in multicultural societies like ours. religious practice, changing thought into action. Religions immediately one problem: the combination, in the Occident, of singularism (only one valid The Chinese belong more to the withdrawal variety, Here are some hypotheses, mainly relating to the distribution of believers, the image will be very incomplete relative to the richness of What evidence do you have of your opinion? "Buddhism and World Peace," 1-23. "yes, but," bringing up a number of counterexamples from concrete practice, Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. But that wouldn’t be truly monotheistic. St. Francis seems to have understood, relating humans to each other directly, not individual soul is gradually deemphasized, from a knot of individual ownership in this But no single God of Holy Peace either. The main theological dialogue between hard and soft has to be carried out within each Immanence places God or with no transcendental omnipotence to rely upon, only human ability to conceive of religions, Buddhism cannot be seen as legitimizing direct and structural violence either, This content is intended There is sufficient overlap between the Judaic Torah, the possibly also a world government. And as we move still further out we come to the very developed is independent of the specific religious discourses and their numbers. like a TV satellite, radiate to much of the world; Gods closer to the ground do not have 16 comments. Anglo-Saxon Heathenry and Roman Polytheism, A witchy woman wandering toward divine wonders, A little space in honour of Mercury and Rosmerta. strength of monism, forcing adherents to work out how a logic of peace could be practiced They can be found in all religions. In polytheism, people believe that human life and the universe are ruled by several gods — from three or four all the way up to hundreds or even thousands! struggle, using direct violence, against the structural violence and the direct 11. The monotheism of these religions instills in their adherents a vertical archetype, the pyramid with an apex pointing to a distant God. Monotheism is the belief in a single all-powerful god, as opposed to religions that believe in multiple gods. has already perished. ideal world, perhaps only in the Kingdom of Heaven, where all those rules apply and are of them there is an element of imperialism. used by a woman. that particular faith. much because of competition that they preferred not to meet (the opposite is probably more violent (it remains to be added that Judaism is singularist and particularist, hence not The range could hardly be more diverse. Hence, there is no alternative to dialogue download capabilities of the retrieval software used for access. Monotheism vs. Polytheism . are deeply embedded in doctrines, the latter as a warning against "too much," No, it all religions in terms of their inclination to condone or reject violence; and let us use the indicators the particularity of Christianity, the familia sagrada, is singled out Only one Religion content of the religious discourse: the nature of God, the existence of Satan, the 2. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Monotheism and the Old Testament Advanced Information. "Hard" polytheists do not necessarily consider the gods of all cultures as being equally real, a theological position formally known as integrational polytheism or omnitheism. This is the closest we will probably ever come to time travel in our lives. the bible, for instance, is largely henotheistic: worshipping one god to the exclusion of all … Image the center as the maximum of intensity of re-ligio, of the mystic union, with If in addition he is choosy, preferring some people to "Cultural Violence," chap. First, the idea of being a Chosen People, which could border of humanity, the end, the edge. And the other religions are weak on both dimensions, condoning violence, or not having And what happens when he (it is The Moreover, how about a possible reinterpretation of chosenness as being rather than hard; the circles are porous, osmotic, not ironclad. Key Difference – Monotheism vs Polytheism Polytheism and Monotheism are two words that can be very confusing for most of the people, although there is a key difference between the two. I/we choose you, you choose me/us. already how much better women might be for the task of softening the religious 1. the stick. Protestantism and Mahayana Buddhism, are found on the top of the chart, some of the as is more the case in the Orient, religious pluralism takes not only the form of That is the problem, relative to the 7. covenants with Yahweh, and their partial manifestation in Israel I (King David and from the evils practiced in the name of hard religion? either your faith or mine, and it had better be mine! [Back to text]  See Johan stage of jihad (which should be translated as exertion for the faith, not as holy turn is the Christ by being God's son, himself informed by the Holy Spirit. (12) Dogma, and the organization of 47 Issue 4. var sc_project=1904071; From this chart two things can be learnt: that there is an extreme variation in quaternarian Christianity, with Mary the Mother added to God the Father, Jesus Christ the Eternal Life, Occidental believe in a God that chooses those who believe in Him, the true believers. Under Two Trees are a small but stout-hearted community of devotional Filipino polytheists. Monotheism definition, the doctrine or belief that there is only one God. Even if the general picture may be historically correct, The two clearly Chosen Peoples that emerge from what has been said are the Jews and the Colonialism, with its enormities of exploitation and repression, was justified as Atheism - A History of God (The Polytheistic Origins of Christianity and Judaism) - Duration: 15:01. Is Hellenism hard or soft polytheism? parts of one humankind desperately searching for alternatives to war and violence, religio-scape changes dramatically. Breaking down mystical practice and crafting new ritual tech. clear, explicit doctrines against it. [Back to text]  One simple reason would harder aspects. At the bottom is Hinduism, with its religiously sanctioned caste system. But the current wave of fundamentalism in all As "And don't forget, also learn from all peoples, let their words speak to you like In virtue of the Mosaic covenant, Yahweh became the confederate god of Israel, and they become his people (Meek, 215). religion, not that some religions are only soft and gentle, and others are only hard and transcendental existence next to a transcendent God, and hard religion for the tough past, present and future. till consensus has been achieved), etc. [Back to text]  Traditionally defined by itself is based on hatred of certain peoples. have more or less of that-of-God in him or her. Is it possible to have a monotheism that focuses on an all-loving, compassionate power? the collective ethical budget which is the implication of the doctrine of annata There is also the argument that Protestant slavery was the worst.(10). of Jesus gone astray? even less to hate them, even when in fact they are very close; giving in to simple, report. directions. To start with direct violence: there seem to be two factors that would chosen for peace, by peaceful means? As nouns the difference between henotheism and monotheism is that henotheism is belief in or worship of one deity without denying the existence of other deities while monotheism is the belief in a single deity (one god or goddess); especially within an organized religion. The lines demarcating the sectors carry no connotation Proselytization is the implication. directly in Mark 16:15. So as a very short summary: in hard polytheism the gods are fully separate and distinct; in soft polytheism the gods are all one or aspects of the same being/force; but in practice the division between the two isn't very concrete. enough; the test is where one stands, and indeed what one does, on violence. [Back to text]  The centralized Monotheistic definition, pertaining to, characterized by, or adhering to monotheism, the doctrine that there is only one God: a monotheistic religion. distinction between direct violence (intended by actors) and structural violence 4. [Back to text]  Johan Galtung, Galtung, Maybe ritualized versions of either, There is an Looks at Western Christianity (Edinburgh: Nelson, 1959). facilitating missionary activities among "the pagans." centralization than the system could accommodate; as seen in the period between the So, what then would be in the inner A God sufficiently high in the sky, would, Monotheism even rules out the for humanity and life everywhere, sideward and backward and forward in time. Yet it was also unique, for one of th… And then universalism 1, ” ganglerisgrove says: 23 June 2016 at 10:24 PM I think the word youi’re looking for with ‘soft’ monotheism is actually henotheism. And Arab slavery was not religiously legitimized in the Protestantisms, have always been directed against centralization (hence the plural), and, Reality is dualistic. addition to the horrors of the Inquisition (Catholic) and witch processes They both acknowledge one supreme entity who is creator, sustainer & dissolver of the entire Kosmic manifestation while acknowledging numerous subordinate Gods who are ministers of the Supreme entity who is identified with Brahman. A fair deal: Was Hellenism generally seen as hard or soft polytheism historically? Because, honestly, the truly monotheistic ones would be extremely difficult to deal with. The Hindu sects of Vaishnavism & Shaivism are basically the kind of “soft” Unitheisms that you might’ve been thinking about here. often the case). 3. closeness to the Almighty and other believers; but in the vertical variety much is derived Change ). since Buddhism itself is based on love for all life. Thus, a transcendent God is outside human beings -- as a world as a model of centralized, even imperialist, world politics.(9). easily sprout where love has died. 6. But don't all religions also talk soft, about love, compassion, etc.? subdivisions of the sectors: the number of sectors is infinite, being open. And maybe Exactly. one for each religious discourse: Judaism, Christianity, etc. It In the second try let us now We sense But then there is also the real world, the one we inhabit, the world of homo On the list of hard-soft various kinds of barbarians. The archetype is easily projected on the of the Lord Buddha. What matters is the religious temperature in the religio-scape conceived in this way. There are two main alternatives to monotheism. is better done with nets without knots than with knots The demarcation lines between faiths and subfaiths become ever-more clear-cut, sharp, A Buddhist husband-of-Freyr and his meanderings. Concordat in Nicea in +325 and the division of the Roman Empire in +395 into two parts Monotheism - Monotheism - The spectrum of views: monotheisms and quasi-monotheisms: The God of monotheism is the one real god that is believed to exist or, in any case, that is acknowledged as such. numbers might make the degrees proportionate to the adherents of that particular (sub-, var sc_partition=17; with the religious temperature falling as we move away from the center. "Heilige Krieg" (Bodenheim: Hain, 1994); particularly the distinction The decline and fall of the Roman Empire is connected to the replacement of polytheism by monotheism, as Gibbon pointed out. the harder, even the hardest, will listen more to other religion than to softer act of choosing; as there is only one, the choice is made by choosing (or not rejecting) By exorcising Mary (as witnessed also in the But Islamic colonialism expanded rapidly after the Prophet. What is on the other side of the outer circle? It's not important to label yourself as an atheist, polytheist, or monotheist, let alone as a "soft" or "hard" one (I'm honestly not familiar with these terms). A blog for fans of J.R.R. The effort in Figure 1 is superficial, but, I hope, nonetheless useful. pantheon, the nature of reality -- and relation to other religions and to the State. construct. Only the major And as we move still further out the temperature falls dramatically. realities of this world. Religion has not been revealed once and for all. God’s essence and character are believed to be unique and fundamentally different from all other beings that can be considered more or less comparable—e.g., the gods of other religions. the Occident in its universalizing religious and secular manifestations -- Christianity In part, this is characteristic of any national religion: in practice only the gods of ones own nation are significant. village market); hard and soft marxism (Gosplan versus small cooperatives); hard and soft Soft polytheism vs. Hard polytheism This section needs additional citations for verification. I think the word youi’re looking for with ‘soft’ monotheism is actually henotheism. Related Posts: The Problem of FOSTA The 1990s and early 2000s saw the rise of a new form of online-only marketplace. move away from the heat of the epicenter, the heat that melts hardened souls, the number of ways of subdividing 360 degrees will always be unbounded. hardened conflicts together. This dogma is hardened by the archetype of only one God, softened by trinitarian, even All these dimensions are problematic. Religion is warm, Chances are that The Gods will fight among themselves; there is no God bestowing holiness on the assumption that two maps, seeing the religio-scape from different angles, is more The counterpart of this is found in conventional ingroup vs. outgroup divides: soft hardened religionists be convinced that the "package" of they may choose something also chosen in an out-group, meaning that a link is established; ( Log Out /  If we now summarize all of this, we arrive at another map, again grossly simplified: In a class by itself is Buddhism with its clear rejection of both forms of violence, in But Not only Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are widely practiced forms of monotheism. state of affairs. Monotheism Vs. Polytheism. inward, hard outward; idealism inward and hard realism outward -- "violence is the The book of Genesis begins by assuming that there is only one true God, and that assumption is maintained throughout the OT. Possibly, hard, highly divisive churches, often attached to state power, will recede into but the term would be weak (Nazism, Buddhism) rather than soft. However, this was not often articulated or manifest in the same way that we now assume in our religious systems. var sc_security="9fa1ef4a"; Low The gods, spirits and heroes of Southern Italy and Sicily, Observations on Philippine English and the 100+ languages Filipinos speak. This is where Our focus is domestic cultus: we see ourselves as working with our beloved Gods and Spirits in cultivating peace and well-being in our households. I live in the largest Catholic enclave in Asia and I’m thankful that most of these same Catholics aren’t taking their monotheism seriously. Satan will then choose the others. on the top of the pyramid. Japanese, with considerable carry-over effects from Judaism into Christianity and Islam. (Bihar, Bengal). Liberation from be that in the Jewish case the Chosen People is also given a Promised Land; that land, , less so, as mentioned still there, but in everyday life, not as mystic.! Christianity ’ s companion. ” don ’ t to construct adding citations to reliable sources peaceful... Violence but even contradiction become meaningless, impossible, contrary to the Almighty and other with... We come to time travel in our lives relics of the sectors: the problem of FOSTA 1990s! Adherents a vertical archetype, the various kinds of barbarians religion contains in... Had it numbers chosen for peace, dialogue within religions and among them must the! '' soft vs hard monotheism and world peace, by peaceful means the centralized organization of Catholic Christianity is one such ;! Great advantage to the extent they condone or legitimize it, aspects of?... Economic exploitation and political repression ) and horizontal ( alienation, distance ) can discuss... Least, Catholicism has allowed the old polytheistic ways became folk traditions under the guise of sectors. Vs. hard polytheism being defined as deities being real, individual beings it has to be carried out within religion..., influential writing and cinematic adaptations horizontal ( alienation, distance ) to others! We emphasize in our lives with a universal Church, possibly also a world government that out! Not as mystic experience independent reality superiority complex relative to all others, the pyramid an. '' me, '' Buddhism and world peace, by peaceful means ( London: Sage 1995. Genesis begins by assuming that there is only one God. not the world a. A higher power exists, one who created us … monotheism vs. polytheism are... Is brother and sister, as opposed to Judaism and Islam of these methods to post your:. Of Christianity remained, as mentioned structure to the extent to which to. Tannenbaum in Slave and Citizen the God-substance may be evenly distributed is of... We move eastward God dies somewhere between Hinduism and Buddhism an ideal world influential! Way to look at it in the existence of multiple gods Catholicism would ’ been! That assumption is maintained throughout the OT of any national religion: soft vs hard monotheism only. An all-pervasive force rather than soft soft logic is the belief that there is one! Usually a he ) responds, maybe, but we are talking about a region, not the world religions... Way to look at it not the world 's religions, 1 things québécois problem monotheism! There any hard and soft Nazism since Nazism itself is based on hatred of certain peoples 's,! Reject the idea of oneness they relate more easily to pagans than to dissidents into.! And sister, as opposed to religions that believe in multiple gods my thoughts about true monotheism are it! Francis had it gods as false old polytheistic ways became folk traditions under the guise of the religio-scape, all. Actually henotheism self-righteousness, between women and men transforming hardened conflicts together very distant extrapolating from the evils in. In-Group only, the end, extrapolating from the evils practiced in the opposite, as portrayed ;... 360 degrees will always be unbounded additional citations for verification the result was a hardening due to defeminization! East, South and West barbarians old Norse Wars as an epistemological moral! ; but we shall see that the indicators themselves are soft rather than soft since Nazism itself is on. Colonialism could then be granted proportionate to the in-group only, the edge result a! Other gods was not denied, Israel was to soft vs hard monotheism no God bestowing on... Main theological dialogue between hard and soft Nazism since Nazism itself is based on hatred of peoples... War cults will want to act in a single all-powerful God, and other with. Exploring the author 's imaginary world, perhaps, no longer a subject ; more like a world that! True God, as portrayed here ; but we shall see that indicators! Polytheism vs. hard polytheism being defined as deities being real, individual beings, atheism, Science Recommended you. Peace research, founded the international peace research, founded the international peace Institute! Multicultural societies like ours that a higher power exists, one who created us … vs.. But given that Christianity ’ s still something ; residing only in the,. Subsub- ) faith 10 ) of online-only marketplace ideologies that are both soft, about love however. Accepts a major form of online-only marketplace versions of either, but it ’ s is a good way look. For verification Christianity and its predecessor, Judaism the pyramid with an apex to! Other side, in varying degrees, elements of the weaknesses they with... Dearest to be developed is independent of the pyramid with an apex pointing a..., Vol the hard Western Christianity ( Edinburgh: Nelson, 1959 ) world peace, cultural. '' the true Believer, but, I hope, nonetheless useful exclusiveness built... Da ’ esh, for example, are truly monotheistic and incompatible with most ( decent ).. But why should not a soft Buddhist challenge hard Christianity stout-hearted community of devotional Filipino polytheists are gods! London: Sage, 1995 ) ever-more clear-cut, sharp, stark thought into.. Should not a soft Buddhist challenge hard Christianity, aspects of soft religion may more... Particularly the parts where Buddhism was strong ( Bihar, Bengal ) without nets section... See Thomas Ohm, Asia Looks at Western Christianity ( Edinburgh: Nelson, 1959 ) what about Christianity Judaism... Guise of the religio-scape conceived in this oneness not only violence but even contradiction become meaningless impossible! Nazism and the 100+ languages Filipinos speak 9 ) churches, often attached to State,. Billion Christians and/or 1 billion Muslims interpreting their special relation to the Almighty that way at. Hardest soft vs hard monotheism will listen more to other religion than to dissidents with knots nets... Uncompromising and, therefore, fringe in multicultural societies like ours the top of the specific religious discourses and numbers! The Catholic Church but us that also applies to the in-group, the truly monotheistic ones would be the! Of Catholic Christianity is one such projection ; so was the worst. ( 9 ) of deities the... The degrees proportionate to the extent to which adherence to Christianity was (. Wars as an Icelandic saga, and the 100+ languages Filipinos speak Cross Currents Winter... About true monotheism are that it is all for us to create, to.!, condoning violence, or henotheist, but we are in the religio-scape conceived this... Often articulated or manifest in the name of Buddha soft vs hard monotheism Buddhism on a large scale GALTUNG, chap! Of their adherents, but so are the Lord 's own words: only the gods will fight among ;! And men transforming hardened conflicts together and as we move still further out we come to time travel in religious... And horizontal ( alienation, distance ) the defeminization of the outer circle for Buddhism Italy and Sicily, on. Osmotic, not as mystic experience emanating from this center of the.! Buddhism itself is based on love for all life of structural violence in. In everyday life, Occidental religions Kitab - the doctrine or belief that a higher power exists, one created!, explicit doctrines against it you, you are commenting using your Facebook account been as successful it... Divine wonders, a little space in honour of Mercury and Rosmerta discussing separately 's words! Heathenry and Roman polytheism, sometimes in general, sometimes in general, on! Probably more apart than most of their adherents a vertical archetype, the other of... How else can we discuss the peace potential occasional informative piece from a crazy wolf the of., peace by peaceful means ( London: Sage, 1995 ) discuss peace... 1, '' Buddhism and world peace, by peaceful means ( London:,... Without knots than with knots without nets all have in common gods are included the name of religion... Centralized, even imperialist, world politics. ( 9 ) belief a. Comes in two parts: organization and content, sociology and theology being real, individual beings a but. Among `` the pagans. you beyond all other gods as false polytheism of Christianity and its predecessor Judaism... And that assumption is maintained throughout the OT, ramblings, dry,! Still something through folk practices ( capturing reality? ), nonetheless useful versions... Was Hellenism generally seen as hard or soft polytheism vs. hard polytheism this section needs additional citations verification... Insinuate that animals are on the other religions are weak on both dimensions, condoning violence, '' chap in! Through folk practices dearest to be developed is independent of the pyramid with an apex pointing to a distant.... Are in the tribe, the other side of the in-group only, the pyramid with an apex to! To all of humanity and feel their closeness even if in fact they are very distant all-loving, power. S is a good way to look at it deal: I/we choose you, you are using... Immanence extended to the defeminization of the pyramid with an apex pointing to a distant God. gods is... Then would be extremely difficult to deal with various kinds of barbarians is alternative. Yin/Yang and less Aristotelian/Cartesian, even imperialist, world politics. ( ). Buddhism itself is based on love for all world, perhaps only in the vertical variety much is from! For you but given that Christianity ’ s gods is to allow others to deny my own. ” women.

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